alkanes boiling point


Table \(\PageIndex{1}\): Physical Properties of Some Alkanes; Molecular Name Formula Melting Point (°C) Boiling Point (°C) Density (20°C)* Physical State (at 20°C) methane: CH 4 –182 –164: 0.668 g/L: gas: ethane: C 2 H 6 –183 –89: 1.265 g/L: gas: propane: C 3 H 8 –190 –42: 1.867 g/L: gas: butane: C 4 H 10 –138 –1: 2.493 g/L: gas: pentane: C 5 H 12 –130: 36: 0.626 g/mL: liquid: hexane: C 6 H 14 –95: 69 The boiling point of alkanes is greatly dependent on the force called the van der Waals force. Van der Waals force is the force that is observed when the molecules interact with each other. Along with interaction, they show repulsion as well as an attraction that takes place between molecules and atoms.
The red line (representing boiling points) is below the dashed black line (representing temperature = 20 o C) for values of n="number of carbon atoms forming the linear alkane chain" < 5.
Hence for values n=1 to 4 (methane, ethane, propane and butane), …

Point (o C) Boiling Point (o C) State at 25 o C: methane: CH 4-183-164: gas: ethane: C 2 …

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