king of ur
The spots on the shields of the Vulture Stele match the spots on the soldiers' cloaks and the chariots on the Standard of Ur. It must be remembered that Eannatum was the Alexander of his day, widely admired by friends and enemies alike as a great king and conqueror. PG 779: The tomb where the Standard of Ur was found. On the stele, Eannatum wears the helmet with a knotted bun in the back. He would remain the King of Kish for the rest of his life. The standard is circled in red. He had a name, although it isn't known. He's the only soldier on the Standard of Ur who has a sickle sword. Eannatum was born for war. It wouldn't be at all surprising that some of his artifacts might be found in the city's royal tombs. I have reconfigured the victory procession into one long line, the way it would appear when it was passing by. The Sumerian soldiers are on the left, as seen in the enlargement below: The Sumerian soldiers wear skirts with a leaf-like fringe. The great Ziggurat of ancient Ur was built by King Ur-Nammu who ruled the area of ancient Ur around 2100 BC. If so, upon his death he could have been buried in Ur in an impressive tomb with the artifacts of his father's legacy, much like the previously mentioned "grandson" of King Meskalamdug. For this reason (and this reason alone) it seems unlikely that he is the king on the Standard of Ur. If the enemies were foreign barbarians (the Elamites, for instance) they would be displayed in the victory procession as slaves or bound prisoners of war, like in a thousand other victory processions throughout the ancient world. The other king is Zuzu of Akshak, who escaped and who will later lead the counterattacks against Eannatum. [ I did a photographic restoration of the picture to repair some of the damage. This is not a mistake on the part of the artist. Written by – A. Sutherland - AncientPages.com Senior Staff Writer, Copyright © AncientPages.com All rights reserved. Eannatum is the king who best fits both the War and Peace sides of the Standard of Ur.When writing The Standard of Ur: war side, I noticed that I was drawing many parallels between the Standard of Ur and the Vulture Stele (the sickle swords, the peaked panels, the helmets, and the king leading his troops on foot and in a chariot). 2) We don’t know who was buried in the tomb where the standard was found, which would be a big hint to the king’s identity. His chariot is equipped with maces, javelins, and a battleaxe. Ancient Ur. It's the Sumerians in war, the Sumerians in peace, and the Sumerians in the practice of their religion. Although depictions of Sumerian and Akkadian battles are somewhat "formulaic", these are the only two known examples where the king is shown fighting on foot and in a chariot. On the standard, only those enemies who are wounded, dying, or taken prisoner are shown naked. On the right, two gods are stabbing another god holding a trident. However, there is no record of him being a King of Kish. I believe these soldiers are the allies of the Kish, the people from Mari and/or Akshak, who are also Akkadians. Nor do we know the date when the tomb was built. He wears the skirt of the Kish; so he's the "former King of Kish". As explained in Weapons, the Royal Tombs of Ur, the sickle sword is a symbol of royalty. Both skirts are split in front and angled up toward the middle, though one of them is more sharply angled than the other. . He escaped this battle and lived to fight another day. They battled each other for hundreds of years before the Standard of Ur was created and for hundreds of years afterward; so apparently they were in no big hurry to destroy one another. It therefore isn't meant to be generic symbol of kings and royalty in general. As long as he is alive he will be a potential threat to the victorious Sumerian king. Eannatum could easily be the king on the standard, regardless of who was buried in the tomb where it was discovered. and they would rule it for the next two centuries. He is a one man juggernaut.See a brief biography of Eannatum.Eannatum is one of the best known Sumerian kings. On the back of the stele, Eannatum leads his troops to victory on foot and in a chariot. These are the only two known examples of this particular format. The men with standards aren't just "standard bearers", common soldiers from the rank-and-file, as is usually the case – they are kings. Eannatum's father, Akurgal, is on the top row, fourth from the right.There are other reasons to suggest that Eannatum is the king on the Standard of Ur: Sumerian phalanx on the Vulture Stele.The shape of the helmets on the Vulture Stele and the Standard of Ur are the same. Part of the Victory Procession of the king. This prisoner is actually the defeated enemy king, formally acknowledging his surrender to the Sumerian king. Click on the drawing to enlarge it. Ur-Nammu also did much for the layout of the city, which then benefited from a Neo-Sumerian revival. Perhaps other kings would impose the same kind of peace on the Akkadians, but it seems most indicative of a king like Eannatum. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of AncientPages.com, 7,000-Year-Old Tepe Ozbaki Mounds Yielded Valuable Relics – But Now The Site Is In Trouble. IMPORT_JS("http://"+webAppHostname+"/app/static/white_label/wl.custom/"+prodDef.wl_name+"/js/global_footer.js"); Many rich artifacts bearing his name were found in PG 755, including a gold helmet and several golden bowls and daggers. PG 779 may be the tomb of his son. This lenient treatment of the enemy also corresponds to Eannatum's known attempts to create a coalition of states. I was also able to find some artifacts that show the sharply-angled skirt worn by some of the enemy soldiers. Most importantly, he conquered all of Akkad, and thus created the first empire known to history.Eannatum was the “King of Kish”, the traditional title taken by any ruler who held hegemony over the regions of Sumer and Akkad. These are the same dates given for the Standard of Ur and for all the other artifacts found in the royal tombs (according to the British Museum, where the standard is kept).In summary: 1) The image of the king on the Standard of Ur isn’t meant to be a recognizable portrait of an individual man. This is what first led me to suspect that Eannatum might be the king on the standard. The Kish were drawn into the war in support of Zuzu, in the year he rose up in rebellion. At other times they were locked in bloody combat, each seeking domination and control of the other. I would suggest that Eannatum's conciliatory efforts were not without precedence. We do know there were many kings of the various city-states in the 1,500 years of Sumerian history. The significance of this will later become apparent. They also match the helmets found in the Royal Tombs of Ur. A modern viewer might have some difficulty identifying the enemies by their angled-skirts, but any Sumerian viewer would know exactly who they are.This brings us to the hint about the identity of the king on the Standard of Ur. That's probably because of the simple and generic style in which all the faces are drawn, with large eyes and big noses. The fact that PG 779 was built on top of the tomb of Meskalamdug's "grandson", favors the later date (2400 B.C.) • W. F. Albright, "The Babylonian Antediluvian Kings", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 43 (1923), pp. I call it the Pax Eannatum. We don’t even know who the tomb belonged to, which would be a big hint to the identity of the king on the standard. The Victory Procession on the Standard of Ur is actually one long line, but it's cut in two halves and stacked one on top of the other to fit onto the standard. The king on the standard would have to be someone who actually fought the Akkadians to become the King of Kish, rather than merely inheriting the title from his father. This part of the battle was previously interpreted as "The enemy prisoners are led away". PG 1054, the tomb associated with King Meskalamdug, and PG 1050 associated with Akalamdug, are on the middle right. The Kish wear the short, slightly-angled skirt that is split in front. This would've been approximately 250 years after the … The 15 Tombs of Ur that Woolley considered to be "royal". This scene by itself doesn’t prove that Eannatum is the king on the Standard of Ur. As previously mentioned, Mesanepada would be my second choice for the king on the Standard of Ur, and one would expect to find his grave in the same vicinity as the other kings of Ur. His face looks the same as all the others, with no distinctive facial features by which we can identify him. Although it's unlikely that Eannatum or his brother was buried in PG 779, the tomb may have been meant for one of his relatives or high officials. The Standard of Ur commemorates his first victory over the Akkadians, when he thus became the King of Kish.The cities of Mari and Akshak were the Akkadian allies of the Kish in the battles against Eannatum. The Royal Standard of Ur is the icon of Sumerian civilization.
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