what was gained with the invention of writing
Some of these rock-carved signs are nearly half a metre in height.
Although we have about 5,000 known inscribed artefacts and the longest inscription consists of 26 symbols, most are just three or four signs long. The Sumerian archaic (pre-cuneiform) writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest true writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400–3100 BC, with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC. Writing is an altogether … Sometime between 900 and 600 BC writing also appears in the cultures of Mesoamerica. That this material was in use in Egypt from a very early period is evidenced by still existing papyrus of the earliest Theban dynasties. All of this is prologue to my current fascination with the history of writing. 1,500 years after the invention of their writing system, cuneiform, the Sumerians had about 2,000 word-symbols.
Finally, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, 2010, pp. Alphabet & protoalphabet the manifest of astrologic doctrine? *** This is parallel to how filmmakers use all sorts of tricks – like panning, cutting, or zooming – to overcome the fact that their medium imposes a frame on and flattens one’s experience of reality. And if literacy was technical, then medieval people tended to distrust documents in a way that we don’t anymore. Mnemonic: glyphs primarily as a reminder. The pen, the printing press, the computer and the mobile phone are all technological developments which have altered what is written, and the medium through which the written word is produced. Just four Maya books survive from the pre-colonial period and fewer than 20 from the entire region. The earliest literary authors known by name are Ptahhotep (who wrote in Egyptian) and Enheduanna (who wrote in Sumerian), dating to around the 24th and 23rd centuries BC, respectively. There are still many unanswered questions about the extent and complexity of writing’s use in pre-colonial Mesoamerica. Although these dates suggest that writing could have spread out from one central point of origin, there is little evidence of any links between these systems, with each possessing unique qualities. Here, the kings of the late Shang dynasty (1300–1050 BC) had founded their capital and carried out divination rituals using animal bones. (Or they were cursed to crawl about on their bellies, if you adhere to Genesis 3.14. They are clay tags or tablets, documenting exchanges of goats, barley and so forth — the hot items of the day. The tokens, enclosed in clay envelopes after being impressed on their rounded surface, were gradually replaced by impressions on flat or plano-convex tablets, and these in turn by more or less conventionalized pictures of the tokens incised on the clay with a reed stylus.
Examples are the cuneiform writing of the Sumerians, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Cretan hieroglyphs, Chinese logographs, Indus script, and the Olmec script of Mesoamerica. On Deep History and the Brain. Shotwell, James Thomson. As best we can tell it is an evolved feature of the human brain. 1970) pp. Later European improvements to the papermaking process came in the 19th century with the invention of wood-based papers. The possibility of 'stimulus diffusion' from Mesopotamia remains, but the influence cannot have gone beyond the transmission of an idea. ), Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World, The Writing Revolution: Cuneiform to the Internet.
Debate surrounds the Indus script of the Bronze Age Indus Valley civilization, the Rongorongo script of Easter Island, and the Vinča symbols dated around 5,500 BCE. These in turn led to the writing systems used throughout regions ranging from Western Asia to Africa and Europe. Whether rongorongo is purely a mnemonic device or a system of logographic and syllabic symbols remains an open question, as does its claim to be a unique sixth point of origin for a writing system. Haarmann, Harald: "Geschichte der Schrift", C.H. Writing, the original IT: This lecture covers the limitations and obstacles of aural transmission. These were common among the Aztecs and other Mexica communities of central Mexico. This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 22:13. This alphabet gave rise to the Aramaic and Greek alphabets. 43–44. determinative signs (signs with no phonetic value, used only to determine which of several alternative meanings for a word is meant in a particular context). It was much better to hear something from someone trustworthy, who heard it from someone trustworthy, who heard it from the source. Scholars make a reasonable distinction …  By the beginning of the second millennium the city of Cordoba in modern Spain, had become one of the foremost intellectual centers of the world and contained the world's largest library at the time.
Much of the evidence is unavailable since the vast majority of materials that survived into the 16th century were burned by the Spanish conquistadors. They used ideographic or early mnemonic symbols to convey information, but it probably directly contained no natural language.  Similar use has been seen in hollow cylinders, or prisms of six or eight sides, formed of fine terra cotta, sometimes glazed, on which the characters were traced with a small stylus, in some specimens so minutely as to be capable of decipherment only with the aid of a magnifying-glass.. But knowledge of how to use the tablets had already been lost by that time.  The letters of the Greek alphabet are more or less the same as those of the Phoenician alphabet, and in modern times both alphabets are arranged in the same order.
An ancient Mesopotamian poem gives the first known story of the invention of writing: Because the messenger's mouth was heavy and he couldn't repeat (the message), the Lord of Kulaba patted some clay and put words on it, like a tablet. With the collapse of the Roman authority in Western Europe, the literary development became largely confined to the Eastern Roman Empire and the Persian Empire. Arabic and Persian quickly began to overshadow Greek's role as a language of scholarship. Cuneiform, the system invented to record it, however, outlived it by almost three centuries: it lasted as a writing system for other languages well into the Christian era.
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